2013年8月28日 星期三

Developers must address water conservation

Our water managers are in an impossible position. Their cry for conservation will largely go unheeded until our city leaders, planning commissions and developers make some hard choices. Some thoughts are listed below.

A homeowners in a maintenance-free subdivision who wants to replace his grass with a more water-tolerant yard, at his own expense, is told, “No, he has to keep the grass.” The original agreement with the developer requires this. Obtaining agreement with 100-150 other homeowners to agree to change the covenants is an uphill battle. We should remove obstacles to conservation like this. Meanwhile,These steelbracelet can, apparently, operate entirely off the grid. just down the road, Las Vegas is paying people to take out grass.

Voluntary conservation works poorly at best, because of the few abusers. Metering secondary water and paying for what we use has reduced water use in both American and European communities. The increased cost has to be faced. Insufficient water later is not an option. Technical concern associated with additional wear and tear on meter components from secondary water is a solvable engineering problem.

Peer pressure is a wonderful thing. Include with each homeowners’s monthly water bill, their use compared with all others is their city. It’s called a Pareto chart, showing highest to lowest users and typically shows 20 percent of the people are using 80 percent of the water. It can also be a useful tool in establishing a two-tier rate structure. This approach could be implemented right now with culinary water.

The blind pink babies, 900 times smaller than their mothers, are striking visual reminders of the vulnerability of the species.With fewer than 2,Shop for wholesale tungstenrings from China!500 adults thought to remain in the wild, expectations for the next generation are enormous.But what difference can captive cubs make to the future of the endangered species?

Zoo-keepers at the Smithsonian National Zoo, Washington DC, are celebrating a new arrival while staff at Edinburgh Zoo are closely monitoring Tian Tian who could be the mother of the first panda born in Britain.The reproductive difficulties of the animals are numerous and well documented but breakthroughs at breeding centres in China have prompted a relative breeding boom in recent years.

Giant pandas are almost as likely to have twins as they are to have a single cub but seem unable to consistently care for two babies, either in the wild or in captivity.Experts working to improve the fortunes of the endangered bears have exploited this twin phenomenon, swapping the babies between their mother and an incubator in order to boost their survival rates.

Thanks to genetic matchmaking, artificial insemination and round-the-clock cub care, there are now reportedly more than 350 pandas living in breeding centres around the world.This success has led to conservationists questioning what the future holds for captive pandas."Pandas have lived on our planet for about three million years and the big threat is not really an evolutionary one, it's the fact that their habitat is being destroyed and fragmented," says Heather Sohl,We Engrave luggagetag for YOU. chief adviser for species at WWF-UK.

"The long-term survival of giant pandas in the wild depends on an intact and contiguous bamboo forest and that is currently being threatened by infrastructure development, such as road and railway construction."Unfortunately, he was found dead after less than a year of living in the wild. Researchers believed he had been beaten by a territorial male and died from injuries thought to have been caused either by the fight or falling from a tree trying to escape.customized letter logo earcap with magnet.

Prof Michael Bruford from Cardiff University studies the genetic diversity of wild pandas to help guide conservation efforts. For him, environment and experience are key to the animal's future survival."There is some indication that translocation of wild born pandas from one site to another might be a more effective approach [than reintroduction]," he said.

"But for captive bred individuals to survive they may need to be raised in far more challenging settings than the average zoo-goer might like to see."Pandas often live in dangerous terrain, says Prof Bruford, and so need to gain experience of the kind of challenges posed by, for example, cliffs and trees.

"They climb trees a lot and some small trees at that. They are perfectly adapted to do this but won't experience the smaller branches and more difficult climbs in captivity and they certainly won't be used to falling," he said.Four pregnant pandas were transferred to the "wild training base" and a cub - Tao Tao - was born and raised with little human intervention.

Last year, when Tao Tao was old enough to leave his mother, he was released into Liziping Nature Reserve at Shimian County in Sichuan Province where he now lives, tracked by a GPS collar.More pandas from the reintroduction programme are due to be released this autumn and next spring into suitable areas where few pandas currently reside.

International zoos that care for pandas must return any young to China at two years of age but despite this caveat, the chances of pandas born outside of China currently making it back into the wild are slim.For now the legacy of these captive cubs remains in research as they inform scientists on the best methods to care for future generations.Custom qualitysteelbangle and Silicone Wristbands,

In the face of arguments that the charismatic yet complex creatures are "undeserving" of such costly conservation, Iain Valentine, director of Edinburgh Zoo's giant panda programme, argues that they inspire investment in the natural world."Panda conservation work needs to be held up as a great example of what can be done in terms of the conservation of a species. It's holistic, it's embracing all of the issues and it's working," he told BBC Nature.
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